Indus River System

Indus River System

Fig : Indus River 

  • The Indus basin extends over  China (Tibet), India, Afghanistan and Pakistan .
  • It drains an area of 11,65,500
  • In India, the basin spreads over states of Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana and Union Territory of Chandigarh
  • Total area in India is  3,21,289 which is nearly 9.8% of the total geographical area.

The basin is bounded by the

-Himalayas on the east,

-Karakoram And Haramosh ranges on the north,

-Sulaiman and Kirthar ranges on the west,

-Arabian Sea on the south.

  •  The Indus River rises from the lofty mountains of Himalayas around Mansarovar Lake in Tibet at an elevation of 5,182 m.
  •   Its principal tributaries in India are the Jhelum, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj, all joining from left.
  • The major part of basin is covered with agricultural land accounting to 35.8% of the total area and 1.85% of the basin is covered by water bodies.

Indus water Treaty

  • The water resource development in the Indus basin is governed by the various provision of the Indus water treaty, 1960.
  • According to this treaty the water of the Ravi, the Beas and the Satluj shall be available for the unrestricted use by India.
  • India has also been permitted to make domestic use, non-consumptive use, uses for runoff the river Hydroelectric plants and specified agricultural use from the Indus, the Jhelum and the Chenab.

River Description ( See  Map While Reading this )

Fig : Indus River Map

  • The origin of the river is located in Tibet; it starts at the meeting point of the Sengge and Gar rivers that sap the Gangdise Shan and Nganglong Kangri mountain ranges.
  • The river subsequently runs to the northwest via Baltistan and Ladakh into Gilgit, immediately south to the Karakoram Mountain range.
  • The Shyok, Gilgit and Shigar rivers transport icy waters into the major river.
  • Then the river slowly turns toward the south, emerging from the hills between Rawalpindi and Peshawar.
  • The river leaves behind enormous canyons with depths of 4,500-5,200 meters  in the vicinity of the Nanga Parbat formation.
  • The Indus River runs rapidly through Hazara and is barraged at the Tarbela Reservoir.
  • The Kabul River meets the river close to Attock.
  •  The rest of its itinerary to the sea is in the Punjab and Sindh basins and the river gets sluggish and extremely plaited.
  • The Panjnad River meets it at Mithankot. Ahead of this meeting point, the Indus, once upon a time, was called Satnad River , as the river was at the moment transporting the waters of Kabul River, the five Punjab rivers, and the Indus River.
  • Going across Jamshoro, it finishes its itinerary in a big delta located to the east of Thatta. Cotton, wheat, and sugarcane are the major agricultural produces of this area.

River Tributaries

Left Tributaries

  1.  Zanskar River
  2. Suru River
  3. Soan River
  4. Jhelum River
  5. Chenab River
  6. Ravi River
  7. Beas River
  8. Sutlej River
  9. Panjnad River
  10. Ghaggar- Hakra River

Right Tributaries

  1. Shyok River
  2. Hunza River
  3. Gilgit River
  4. Swat River
  5. Kunar River
  6. Kabul River
  7. Kurram River
  8. Gomal River
  9. Shob River

Tributaries explanation

Left Tributaries

1.Zanskar River

Fig : Confluence of Zanskar and Indus 

  • This river forms through confluence of two small rivers.Doda River or stod river and Tsarap river confluence together to form Zanskar river.
  • It runs through Ladakh Plateau .
  • It joins Indus in Ladakh .

2.Suru River

  • It flows through Kargil .
  • This river originates from Panzella Glacier near Kargil..
  • This river flows near to Doda River or stod river .
  • It flows through Nun Kun Mountain.

3.Soan River .

It flows through pakistan.

4.Jhelum River.

  • It is the western most of the five rivers of Punjab region.
  • It passes through kashmir valley.
  • It is a tributary of Chenab river.
  • It originates in the Verinag Spring located at the foot of Pir Panjal in the kashmir Valley.
  • It flows through Srinagar and Wular Lake.

Fig : Wular Lake 

  • Wular is the one of the largest fresh water lake in India.
  • Wular Lake is formed due to tectonic activity.
  • Wular Lake is one of the Ramsar Wetland site.
  • Tulbul project is the navigation project at Wular Lake.
  • The larget tributary of Jhelum River is Neelum river.
  • It joins with Chenab in Pakistan.
  • Neelum or Kishanganga river mergers with Jhelum in Pakistan .
  • Kishanganga river originates from Krishansar lake in Jammu and Kashmir

5.Chenab River

  • It flows through Jammu ,Punjab and Then to Pakistan .
  • It Originates from Baralacha la Pass in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Kala Nag is one of the tributary of Chenab river.

6.Ravi River

  • It rises in the Bara Bhangal in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • Flowing eastward from its origin,it is turned by Pir Panjal and Dhauladhar Ranges and forms a triangular zone.

7.Beas River

  • It Originates on the southern face of Rohtang pass in the state of Himachal Pradesh.
  • It joins with Satluj river in Punjab.

8.Satluj River

  • On many occasions, the Sutlej is called as the Red River.
  •  The river is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River.
  •  The origin of the Sutlej River is located close to Lake Rakhastal in Tibet in the vicinity of the Kailash Mountain Range.
  • The Sutlej River usually runs according to a west to southwest itinerary moving into India via the Shipki La Pass located in Himachal Pradesh.
  • Ropar wetland is located on the satluj river basin.

9.Panjnad River

  • It is formed by successive confluence of five rivers namely Jhelum,Chenab,Ravi ,Beas and Satluj.
  • Jhelum and Ravi join Chenab ,Beas join Satluj,Then satluj and Chenab join to form Panjnad.

10.Ghaggar -Hakra  river 

  •  It is an intermittent river in India and Pakistan that flows only during the monsoon season.
  • It starts from Shivalik Hills in the state of Himachal Pradesh .
  • The river is known as Ghaggar before ottu Barrage and as the Hakra downstream of the Barrage.

Right Tributaries

1.Shyok River

  • It Originates at the Rimo Glacier in the tongue of Siachen Glacier.
  • It flows through Ladakh and enters Gilgit Baltistan area .
  • It widens it length when it joins with Nubra River.
  • Nubra also originates from Siachen Glacier.
  • Shyok and Nubra valley is situated in the Ladakh..
  • Khardung La on the Ladakh range lies north of leh and is the gateway to the Shyok and Nubra Valleys.

2.Hunza River

Fig : Hunza Valley 

It cuts through Karakoram range and flows through pakistan .

3.Gilgit River.

  • It starts from Shandur lake.
  • It flows through Gilgit .

Swat ,Kunar ,Kabul ,Kurram,Gomal and Zhob are the rivers that flows in Pakistan.

Dams in Indus river.

Fig : Bhakra Dam 

  1. Baglihar Dam – Chenab River- Jammu and Kashmir
  2. Baira Siul Dam – Baira/ Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
  3. Bassi Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
  4. Bhakra Dam – Satluj – Himachal Pradesh
  5. Chamera Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
  6. Chohal Dam – Chohal River – Punjab
  7. Damsal Dam – Damsal river – Punjab
  8. Dholbaha Dam – Dholbaha Khad river – Punjab
  9. Dulhasti Dam – Chenab River – Jammu and Kashmir
  10. Jainti Dam – Punjab
  11. Janauri Dam – Punjab
  12. Karchham Wangtoo Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
  13. Kishanganga Dam – Kishanganga river – Jammu and Kashmir
  14. Kol Dam – Satluj River – Himachal Pradesh
  15. Largi Dam – Beas River – Himachal Pradesh
  16. Mali Dam – Punjab
  17. Malana Dam – Ravi River – Himachal Pradesh
  18. Mirzapur Dam – Punjab
  19. Nathpa Jhakri Dam – Satluj River – Himachal Pradesh .
  20. Nimoo Bazgo River – Indus River – Jammu and Kashmir
  21. Pakal Dul Dam – Marusudar river – Jammu and Kashmir
  22. Pandoh Dam – Beas River – Himachal Pradesh
  23. Parbati Dam – Himachal Pradesh
  24. Patiari Dam – Punjab
  25. Pong Dam – Beas River – Himachal Pradesh
  26. Ranjit Sagar Dam – Ravi River – Punjab
  27.  Dalal Dam – Chenab River – Jammu and Kashmir
  28. Saleran Dam – Punjab.
  29. Shahpur Kandi Dam – Ravi River – Punjab
  30. Uri Dam – Jhelum River – Jammu and Kashmir






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