Yamuna river System

Yamuna river

Source : 

  • Yamunotri, which is north of Haridwar in the Himalayan Mountains, is the source of the Yamuna.
  • The river Yamuna, a major tributary of river Ganges, originates from the Yamunotri glacier near Banderpoonch peaks  in the Mussourie range of the lower Himalayas in the state of Uttarakhand .

River Description

  •  In its first 170 km stretch, the tributaries Rishi Ganga Kunta, Hanuman Ganga, Tons and Giri join the main river.
  • In the upper reaches of the Tons river is situated the Gobind Pashu Vihar Sanctuary, a high altitude preserve and is approached from the Rupin valley near Natwar.
  •  This spectacular sanctuary, ringed by high peaks and hemmed in on three sides by ice fields and snow beds, this amphitheatre is the source of the Tons river and home to many high altitude bird species like snow cock, snow partridge and the Monal pheasant.

Elephant Corridors

  • Another little known fact about the Yamuna is that it is the frontier of the Indian elephant. West of the Yamuna, there is no elephant in 900 Km of the western Himalaya or its foothills.
  •  The forests of the lower Yamuna offer ideal corridors for elephant movement and the principal forests to be found here are of Sal, Khair Sissoo trees and the Shivalik chir- pine forests.

Catchment Area of Yamuna river

The catchments of Yamuna river system cover parts of Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh & Delhi states.


Left Tributaries

  1. Hindon
  2. Tons
  3. Giri

Right Tributaries 

  1. Chambal
  2. Betwa
  3. Ken
  4. Sindh
  5. Baghain

Tributaries Explanations 

Tons River

  •  It flows through Garhwal , the western part of the Himalayan state of Uttaranchal.
  • The river originates at Bandarpunch in uttarakhand state .
  • It  joins  the Yamuna below Kalsi near Dehradun, Uttarakhand.
  •  It is one of the most major perennial Indian Himalayan rivers.

Giri River:

  •  It is the main source of water in the South-Eastern Himachal Pradesh.
  • The Giri is famous in the Jubbal, Rohru hills that rises from Kupar peak just above Jubbal town.
  • It   flows across the heart of Shimla hills .
  • It  joins Yamuna upstream of Paonta below Mokkampur.

Hindon River

  • Hindon river is sand-witch between two major rivers: Ganga on the left and Yamuna on the right.
  • This river originates from upper Shiwalik (Lower Himalayas).
  •  It is a purely rain fed river.
  • Hindon Air Force Base is located on the bank of this river.

Betwa River

  • The Betwa river originates  in the Bhopal District in Madhya Pradesh.
  • The river joins the Yamuna River near Hamirpur.
  • The river runs through Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh .
  • The basin is saucer shaped with sandstone hills around the perimeter.
  • The river has 14 principle tributaries out of which 11 are completely in Madhya Pradesh and 3 lies partly in Madhya Pradesh and partly in Uttar Pradesh.
  • The Halali and Dhasan River are the important tributaries of the Betwa River.

Dhasan River

  • This river originates in Begumganj tehsil of Raisen district in Madhya Pradesh state in central India.
  •  The river forms the southeastern boundary of the Lalitpur District of Uttar Pradesh state..
  • This river lies in the state of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh
  • The river was known as the Dasharna in ancient period.
  •  There is a water quality station at Garrloi on River Dhasan.

Ken River

  • Ken is an inter-state river, flowing through the state of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  •  The river originates near the village Ahirgawab in Jabalpur District of Madhya Pradesh .
  • It  joins the Yamuna River, near Chilla village in the state of Uttar Pradesh .
  •  It forms the common boundary between Panna and Chattarpur district of M.P. and Banda district  of Uttar Pradesh .
  • This river lies in the state of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
  •  The important tributaries of the Ken River are Sonar, Bearma, Kopra, Bewas, Urmil, Mirhasan, Kutni, Kali, Gurne, Patan, Siameri, Chandrawal, Banne, etc, among others.
  •  The longest tributary is Sonar .

Sind River

  • It Originates in Vidisha District of Madhya Pradesh.
  • It flows generally in north- east direction and joins  Yamuna near  Auraiya.
  • Important tributaries of Sind are Parwati and Kunwari on its left bank and Pahuj on the right bank.

River Chambal

  • The Chambal River, called Charmanvati in ancient times.
  • It is the largest of the rivers flowing through Rajasthan state.
  •  It lies in the states of Madhya Pradesh , Uttar Pradesh and Rajat .
  •  River Chambal, the biggest tributary of Yamuna rises in Vindhyan range near Mhow in Indore District of Madhya Pradesh .

 Chambal basin is bound on

1.north by the ridge separating it from Luni and Yamuna basins,

2.on the south by Vindhyan range

3.on the west by Aravali range,

4.on east lies the ridge separating it from Kunwari and Sind rivers of Yamuna basin Chambal basin . Its total catchment area is 1,39,468 sq.km.

Three major dams and one barrage have been constructed on this river .

  1. Gundhi Sagar Dam located on the boundary of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan .
  2. Rana Pratap Sagar is located in  Rawat Bhata near  Gandhi Sagar Dam  in the state of Rajasthan
  3. Jawahar Sagar Dam near to  Rana Pratap Sagar Dam.
  4. Kota Barrage near Kota city which is 48 km downstream of Rana Pratap Sagar Dam.

Tributaries of Chambal River

Left Tributaries

  1. Banas
  2. Mej

Right Tributaries

  1. Parbati
  2. Kali Sindh
  3. Shipra

Chambal Tributaries explanation

Kali Sindh:

  • It’s originated in the northern slopes of Vindhya Hills.
  •  It flows through Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
  •  Its joins Chambal River near Nonera village of Kota District.

Parwan River:

  • The Parwan River is the tributary  of Kalisindh River.
  • The Parwan originate in the Malwa Plateau in the stt of Madhya Pradesh
  • . Its join Kali Sindh near Ramgarh village in Kota district.

 Parwati River:

  • The Parwati river originates in the northern slopes of the Vindhyan hills in M.P.
  • This river   forms a boundary between Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan .
  •  Major tributaries of the Parwati River are Lhasi, Berni, Bethli, Andheri, Retri, Dubraj, Bilas and Kunu.

Banas River

  • The Banas River originates in the Khamnor hills of the Aravali range .
  • This river lies mostly in the state of Rajasthan
  • The main tributaries of the Banas River are Berach and Menali on the right bank and Kothari, Khari, Dai, Dheel, Sohadara, Morel and Kalisil on the left bank.

Sipra River

The Sipra River is also call Ksipra (Markandeya). It flows in the state of Madhya Pradesh.





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