The major reason why India do not had meaningful relationship was lack of connectivity.

History of Relationship

1979 – Soviet invasion of Afganistan

1992- Soviet Withdrew,,this resulted into weak mujahidin rule in Afganistan

1996-2000s – Taliban backed by Pakistan came into power

>Northern alliance opposed Taliban,,India is a traditional supporter of Northern Alliance,,,9/11 terrorist attack -> Operation ‘Enduring Freedom’ ->UN backed againt Taliban

Afganistan Peace Process

  • It’s a major agreement to bring peace process
  • Negotiation between Taliban and Afganstan government and backed by other international players for peace and security of Afganistan

Afganistan, US, China and Pakistan[Quadrilateral Coordination Group – QCG]

Heart of Asia Summit / Istambul Ministerial Conference

Bilateral Security Arrangement

Dushshande Declaration of SCO

6+1 dialogue mechanism

Current Situation in Afganistan

1)The withdrawal of The International Security Assistance Force ( ISAF was a NATO-led security mission in Afghanistan, established by the United Nations Security Council in December 2001 by Resolution 1386, as envisaged by the Bonn Agreement. Its main purpose was to train the Afghan National Security Forces and assist Afghanistan in rebuilding key government institutions, but was also engaged in the 2001–present war with the Taliban insurgency

2)Taliban is continuing its spring offensive attacks in Afganistan

3)Afganistan always remains in catch 22 situation : ‘It’s a condition in which outcome is not coming because of conflict of interest between contracting parties’

4)Growing influence of China in Afganistan

6)Trump’s New Afgan Policy : Principal Realism – 4000 more ISAF to be sent to Afganistan,,,Against Pakistan,,,,Sought support of India….

Why Afganistan ?

1)Connectivity to Central Asia

2)Security Concern : Stability in Afganistan can deny military presence of Pakistan in Afganistan and thus can deny the ‘Strategic Depth Theory’

3)Drug trafficking : Part of Golden Crescent (Others are Iran and Pakistan)

4)Energy and Minerals : TAPI pipeline



a)Infrastructure : 

  • Delarum – Zaranj Highway
  • Salma Dam
  • Afgan Parliament development : Through this India demonstrate its support to establish democratic institutions
  • Hydro electric Project development

b)LoC and Soft loan

c)India invest in Haigak mines[Iron mine]


  • India provides training to ANSF (Afghan National Security Forces)
  • India also supply Cheetal helicopters and armed helicopters

3)Humanitarian Assistance

  • India provides soft loan and LoC in Afganistan
  • Investment in medical sector : Indira Gandhi Hospital

4)Community development programme

  • Indian NGOs are very much activein the Afgan development process – Eg : Activity of SEWA

5)Education and Capacity development programme


  • Civilisational neighbour
  • Bollywood


  • Refusal of India to supply arms and ammunition to ANSF
  • Refusal of Afganistan to sign an agreement which mandates Afganistan to do its trading in Chabahar
  • India is concerned about safety of India’s investment in Afganistan
  • The role of India in Afganistan is low


India always aspire to make Afganistan a neutral country. For India, Afganistan pease process should be Afgan led and Afgan owned. For this India have to increase its negotiation with like minded countries. India should calibrate its efforts of a joint strategy and should take advantages of India’s soft power . India have to recognise the fact that peaceful perfery would be always in India’s interest and should try to be in inner circle of ‘Afganista’s five circle policy’……

India has been always encouraging a multi ethnic political solution in Afganistan…


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