Preamble of India :
WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens:
JUSTICE, social, economic and political;
LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship;
EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all
FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity [and integrity] of the Nation;
IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION.
What is preamble ?
# The ‘Preamble’ is an introduction to the constitution .
# The Preamble to Constitution of India is guidelines to guide people of the nation, to present the principles of the Constitution, to indicate the source from which the document derives its authority, and meaning.
Objective Resolution :
#The Preamble of the Indian Constitution is primarily based on the Objective Resolution written by Jawaharlal Nehru.
#He introduced this objective resolution on 13th December, 1946 and was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 22nd January, 1947.
#Initially, the Preamble was drafted by Sh. B. N. Rau in his memorandum of May 30, 1947, and was later reproduced in the Draft of October 7, 1947.
# In the context of the deliberations by the Constituent Assembly, the Preamble was reformulated.
#It was adopted on 26th November, 1949 and it was implemented from 26th January, 1950 also known as Republic Day.
Purpose of the preamble
# The source from which the Constitution comes is indicated viz., the people of India.
# The rights and freedoms which the people of India intended to secure to all citizens are declared and the basic type of government and polity which were to be established.
₹ The Preamble does not grant any power but it gives a direction and purpose to the Constitution.
# It outlines the objectives of the whole Constitution.
# The Preamble contains the fundamentals of the constitution. The preamble to an Act sets out the main objectives which the legislation is intended to achieve.
What preamble indicates ?
#Preamble indicates the ultimate source for the validity of and the sanction behind the constitution is will of the people.
#Thus the source of the Constitution are the people themselves from whom the Constitution derives its ultimate sanction.
#The Preamble to the Constitution declares India to be Sovereign Secular Democratic Republic.
# It sets out the objectives and socio-economic goals to achieve which the Indian Polity has been established, these are stated in the Preamble.
What are the principles said in Preamble of Constitution ?
1. We, the people of India
The words we the people indicate that the people of India are the source of authority behind the Constitution.
# The word sovereign is adopted from Ireland constitution .
# The Preamble states that India is a Sovereign State which implies the independent authority of India.
# India is not under the control of or dependent upon any other external power.
# The Parliament of India can enact laws in the country subject to certain restrictions imposed by the Constitution.
3. Socialist :
# The term Socialist was added after the 42nd Amendment, 1976, during the emergency.
# The term socialist denotes democratic socialism.
# It means a political-economic system that provides social, economic, and political justice.
# The term Secular was also added by the 42nd Amendment Act, 1976, during the emergency.
# The Constitution states India as a secular state as the state has no official religion.
# A secular state is one that does not confer any privilege or favour on any particular religion.
# India is called a secular state because it does not have any state religion and people are free to practice any religion of their choice.
5. Democratic :
# Democracy signifies ‘the rule of the people.’
# #The definition given by Abraham Lincoln says “Democracy is the government of the people, by the people, and for the people.”
# “The word democracy itself means rule by the people.
# A democracy is a system where people can change their rulers in a peaceful manner and the government is given the right to rule because the people say it may.
# India has a republic form of government as the head of state is elected and not a hereditary monarch like a king or queen.
# It means the power to elect the head of the state for a fixed term lies within the people.
# So, in conclusion, the word republic shows a government where the head of state is elected by the people rather than any birthright.
# The term Justice comprises of three elements that complete the definition, which is social, economic, and political.
# Justice among the citizens is necessary to maintain order in society.
# Social justice means that the Constitution wants to create a society without discrimination on any grounds like caste, creed, gender, religion, etc. Where people have equal social status by helping the less privileged people.
# The Constitution tries to eliminate all the exploitations which harm equality in the society.
# Economic Justice means no discrimination can be caused by people on the basis of their wealth, income, and economic status.
# Every person must be paid equally for an equal position and all people must get opportunities to earn for their living.
# Political Justice means all the people have an equal, free and fair right without any discrimination to participate in political opportunities.
# It means everyone has equal rights to access political offices and have equal participation in the processes of the government.
8. Liberty (of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship)
# Liberty has been derived from the Latin word ‘liber’ which means free.
# The Constitution of India professes to secure the liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith, and worship, which are regarded as essential to the development of the individual in the Nation.
9. Equality (of status and of opportunity)
# Equality of status and opportunity is secured to the people of India by abolishing all distinctions and discriminations by the state between citizen and citizen on the ground of religion, race, caste sex and by throwing open public places, by abolishing untouchability and titles, by securing equality for opportunity in the matters relating to employment or matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the state.
# The principle of equality of law means not the same law should apply to everyone, but that a law should deal alike with all in one class; that these should be equality of treatment under equal circumstances.
# It means that should not be treated unlike and unlikes should not be treated alike. Likes should be treated alike.
# Fraternity means the spirit of brotherhood, a feeling that all people are children of the same soil, the same motherland.
Amendment to preamble :
The 42nd Amendment Act, 1976 was the first act ever to amend the preamble of the Constitution. On December 18th, 1976, Socialist, Secular, and Integrity were added to the preamble to protect economic justice and eliminate discrimination whatsoever.
Is preamble a part of Constitution ?
# Kesavanada Bharati case held that the Preamble is a part of the Constitution and, therefore, is amendable under Article 368.
# It can be concluded that Preamble is an introductory part of our Constitution.
#The Preamble is based on the Objective Resolution of Nehru.
#So, it can be concluded that preamble is part of the introductory part of the Constitution.