Total sanitation – 1999 : aim to make India Open Defecation Free

Bharath Nirman – 2005

Nirmal Bharath Abhyan – 2006-07

Swatch Bharath Abhiyan – 2014



To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put focus on safe sanitation ABM was launched

It has mainly two componnents





Importance of Sanitation

Poor sanitation is a primary cause for many deadly diseases, deaths among children under age five, contamination of ground water sources, loss of family income on account of increased health costs, and compromised human dignity

Impacts poor sanitation

  • 1] on health : Exposure to contaminated drinking water sources and food with pathogen-laden human waste is a major cause of diarrhoea, and can be affected by cholera, trachoma, intestinal worms, malaria, ascariasis, etc. WHO observed that one gram of feces can contain 10,000,000 viruses, 1,000,000 bacteria, 1,000 parasite cysts and 100 parasite eggs.
  • 2]. Impact on children and women : Poor sanitation specially affects children under age of five, as their immunity is not strong enough yet to fight the many diseases caused by poor sanitation. Children falling frequently ill, miss school often leading to poor performance. An infected child is also likely to spread infections to his/her peers. When girl students reach adolescence, absence of separate and clean toilet facilities cause discomfort, discourage them to attend school while menstruating and eventually drop out of school. In addition to health and social burden on young girls and women, poor sanitation also forces them to experience fear, shame, and harassment while having to defecate in the open.
  • 3] Impact on environment Inadequate sanitation and waste management have direct impacts on the environment. Untreated sewage flowing directly into water bodies affect coastal and marine ecosystems, contaminate soil and air, exposing millions to disease.
  • 4] Impact on economy : A study by the World Bank says that absence of toilets and conventional sanitation cost India 6.4% of its GDP in 2006. The economic impact of poor sanitation for India is atleast USD 38.5 billion every year under Health, Education, Access time and tourism.

 Aims of SBM (G)

  • To achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to the 150th Birth Anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi….
  • improving the levels of cleanliness in rural areas through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities
  • making Gram Panchayats Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitised.

“ ODF would mean the termination of faecal-oral transmission, defined by, a) no visible faeces found in the environment/village and, b) every household as well as public/community institution(s) using safe technology option for disposal of faeces”

Objecives of “Swachh Bharat”

– to be achieved by 2nd  October 2019

  1. Bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation
  2. Accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh
  3. Motivate communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education
  4. Encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation
  5. Develop, wherever required, community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas
  6. Create significant positive impact on gender and promote social inclusion by improving sanitation especially in marginalized communitie

Implementation of SBM

a)Behaviour Change/IEC

Collective Behaviour Change (CPC): focusing heavily on triggering entire communities,, awareness generation, triggering mindsets,,, demand generation

Inter Personal Communication (IPC) : house to  interventions.

b)Adequate Capacities:

c)Swachhagrahis : dedicated, trained and properly incentivized sanitation workforce at the village level. They are like an army of ‘foot soldiers’ or ‘Swachhagrahis’ specifically for the purpose of sanitation work.. The Swachhagrahi shall be a voluntary position with high visibility and motive of

social service and not an employment,,, However, the Swachhagrahis must be paid an appropriate incentive for their contribution to making villages ODF.

d)Civil Society Organisations (CSOs): SHGs may also be utilized for working as Rural Sanitary Marts (RSMs) in remote areas where bulk procurement and delivery of quality hardware for toilet construction may be assured through such a system. Funding for this shall also be permitted under SBM(G).

e)Availability of water:

f)Rapid Action Learning Unit (RALU): RALU should be put in place at the National, State and District levels (if found to be required by States), to monitor, evaluate, to provide advice on corrective action and upscale good practices.


  • Verification of ODF communities : Continual role of Nigrani committees, Natural leadersm-Nigrani committees/ natural leaders/ Panchayat representatives who have played critical role in making the village ODF need to continue morning and evening follow-up for at least nine months after ODF declaration.

Components of SBM

1)Start-Up Activities

2)Information, Education, Communication (IEC)

3)Capacity Building

4)Construction of Individual Household Latrines

5)Availability of Sanitary Material

6)Solid and Liquid Resource Management


  • As per the Constitution 73rd Amendment Act, 1992, Sanitation is included in the 11th Schedule. Accordingly, Gram Panchayats have a pivotal role in theimplementation of SBM(G).
  • The GPs will participate in the social mobilization for the triggering demand, construction of toilets and also maintenance of the clean environment by way of safe disposal of waste.
  • Community Complexes constructed under the SBM(G) will be maintained by the Panchayats/Voluntary Organizations/Charitable trusts
  • Gram Panchayats can also contribute from their own resources for school sanitation and Solid and Liquid Waste Management infrastructure over and above the prescribed amount.
  • GPs can play a key role in promoting regular use, maintenance and upgrading of toilets, SLWM components and Inter-Personal Communication for hygiene education.
  • The GP will organise and assist in organizing Social Audits of the programme.

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