## North India splintered into several warrior
kingdoms after the downfall of the Gupta
## Excepting in the areas that were subdued by the Huns (modern Punjab, Rajasthan and Malwa), regional identity became pronounced with the emergence of many small states.
## Maithriyas had organised a powerful state in Sourashtra (Gujarat), with Valabhi as their capital.
## Agra and Oudh were organised into an independent and sovereign state by the Maukharis.
## The Vakatakas had recovered their position of ascendency in the western Deccan.
## Despite political rivalry and conflict among these states, Thaneswar, lying north of Delhi between Sutlej and Yamuna, was formed into an independent state by Pushyabhutis.
## It rose to prominence under Harsha. Harsha ruled the kingdom as large as that of the Guptas from 606 to 647 CE..
1. Bana’s Harshacharita
2. Hieun Tsang’s Si-Yu-ki
1.Madhuban copper plate inscription
2.Sonpat inscription on copper seal
3.Banskhera copper plate inscription
4.Nalanda inscription on clay seals
Bana’s Harshacharita was the first formal biography of a king. It inaugurated a new literary genre in India.
## The founder of the Vardhana dynasty was
Pushyabhuti who ruled from Thaneswar.
##.He served as a military general under the
imperial Guptas and rose to power after
the fall of the Guptas.
##With the accession of Prabakara Vardhana (580–605 CE), the Pushyabhuti family became strong and powerful.
##.Prabakara Vardhana fought against the Gurjaras and the Huns and established his authority as far as Malwa and Gujarat.
##.He gave his daughter Rajyasri in marriage to the Maukhari king, Grahavarman, of Kanauj (near modern Kanpur), thus making Kanauj his ally.
##.Prabakara Vardhana’s dream of building
an empire was eventually realised by his
younger son Harsha-vardhana.
##.Rajavardhana(605-606 CE), the eldest son of Prabhakaravardhana, ascended the throne after his father’s death.
##.He was treacherously murdered by Sasanka, the Gauda ruler of Bengal.
##.This resulted in his younger brother Harsha-vardhana becoming the king of Thanesar.
##.Harsha had known the weakness of a group of small kingdoms and conquered his neighbours to integrate them into his empire.
##.As Thanesar was too close to the threats from the northwest, Harsha shifted his capital from Thanesar to Kanauj.
##.Kanauj was located in the rich agricultural region of the western Ganges Plain.
Harsha as King of Kanauj
##.The magnates of Kanauj (the capital of
Maukhari kingdom), on the advice of their
minister Poni, invited Harsha to ascend the throne.
##.A reluctant Harsha accepted the throne on the advice of Avalokitesvara Bodhisatva with the title of Rajputra and Siladitya.
##.Thus the two kingdoms of Thaneswar and Kanauj became united under Harsha’s rule. Consequently, Harsha transferred his capital to Kanauj.
Harsha’s Military Conquests
##.On his accession in 606 CE Harsha focused his attention on the affairs of his sister Rajyasri who had fled to Vindhya mountains to escape from the evil design of Deva Gupta of Malwa to covet her.
##.Harsha went to Vindhya mountain ranges and succeeded in saving his sister who was about to burn herself after killing Deva Gupta.
##.Harsha consoled Rajyasri and brought her back to the kingdom of Kanauj.
##.Later Rajyasri took to Buddhism and was instrumental in converting Harsha to Buddhism.
##.According to Bana, Harsha, in an effort to build an empire, sent an ultimatum to the following kings to either surrender or be prepared for a battle:
1. Sasanka, the Gauda ruler of Bengal.
2. The Maitrakas of Valabhi and Gurjara of Broach region.
3. The Chalukya king, Pulikesin II, in the Deccan
4. Rulers of Sindh, Nepal, Kashmir, Magadha, Odra (northern Odisha) and Kongoda (another geographical unit in ancient Odisha).
##.Harsha’s immediate task was to take revenge on Sasanka.
##.Harsha entered into an alliance with the king of Kamarupa (Pragiyaotisha), which is today the modern Assam.
##.But there is hardly any detail of the war between Harsha and Sasanka.
##.However, Harsha seems to have successfully subjugated the Gauda Empire, which included Magatha, Gouda, Odra and Kongoda only after the death of Sasanka.
##.The hostilities between Harsha and the Maitrakas ended in the marriage of Dhruvabhatta with the daughter of Harsha.
Soon, Valabhi became a subordinate ally of Harsha.
Pulikesin II, the Chalukya King
##.Harsha sought to extend his authority southward into the Deccan.
##.However the Chalukya king Pulikesin II, who controlled the region, humbled Harsha.
##.In commemoration of his victory over Harsha, Pulikesin assumed the title of “Parameswara”.
##.Inscriptions in Pulikesin’s capital Badami attest to this victory.
##.Pulikesin II (modern representation) Extent of Harsha’s Empire Harsha ruled for 41 years.
##.His feudatories included those of Jalandhar (in the Punjab), Kashmir, Nepal and Valabhi.
## Sasanka of Bengal remained hostile to him. Though it is claimed that Harsha’s Empire comprised Assam, Bengal, Bihar, Kanauj, Malwa, Odisha, the Punjab, Kashmir, Nepal and Sindh, his real sway did not extend beyond a compact territory between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers.
##.The kingdom of Harsha disintegrated
rapidly into small states after his death.
Harsha’s Relations with China
Pics : Coins During Harsha-vardhana
##.Harsha had cordial relations with China.
The contemporary T’ang emperor, Tai Tsung, sent an embassy to his court in 643 and again in 647 CE.
##.On the second occasion, the Chinese ambassador found that Harsha had recently died.
##.On Learning that the throne had been usurped by an undeserving king, the Chinese ambassador rushed to Nepal and Assam to raise a force to dislodge the usurper.
##.Later, the king who had usurped the throne was taken to China as a prisoner.
##.According to historian Burton Stein, a centralised administration did not even exist under the powerful Guptas.
##.It was restricted only to the central part of the Gangetic plain between Pataliputra and Mathura. Beyond that zone, there was no centralised authority.
##.The only difference between Guptas and Vardahanas is that the former had formidable enemies like Huns, while the latter had no such opponents.
##.The copper plates of 632 CE record a gift of land to two Brahmans.
##.The names of certain political personages with state power, as protectors of the gift, are mentioned in them.
##.Some were mahasamantas, allied to the king but of a subordinate status. Others were independent maharajas but acknowledged feudatories of Harsha.
##.There was yet another category of rulers who pledged their loyalty to Harsha and professed to be at his service.
##.This is the characteristic of Harsha’s imperial authority in North India .
Council of Ministers
##.It appears that the ministerial administration during the reign of Harsha was the same as that of the imperial Guptas.
##.The emperor was assisted by a council of ministers(Mantri Parishad)in his duties.
##.The council played an important role in the selection of the king as well as framing the foreign policy of the empire.
##.The prime minister was of the most important position in the council of ministers.
key officials .
1. Avanti – Minister for
2. Simhananda – Commander-inChief
3. Kuntala – Chief Cavalry
4. Skandagupta – Chief
5. Dirghadhvajas – Royal Messengers
6. Banu – Keeper of Records
7. Mahaprathihara – Chief of the Palace
8. Sarvagata – Secret Service
##.Bhaga, Hiranya and Bali were the three kinds of tax collected during Harsha’s reign.
##.Bhaga was the land tax paid in kind. One-sixth of the produce was collected as land revenue.
##.Hiranya was the tax paid by farmers and merchants in cash.
##.There is no reference to the tax Bali.
##.The crown land was divided into four parts.
Part I – for carrying out the affairs
of the state
Part II – for paying the ministers and
officers of the crown
Part III – for rewarding men of letters
Part IV – for charity to religious
Administration of Justice
##.Criminal law was more severe than that of the Gupta age.
##.Mimamsakas were appointed to dispense justice.
##.Banishment and the cutting of limbs of the body were the usual punishments.
##.Trial by ordeal was in practice. Life imprisonment was the punishment for the violations of the laws and for plotting against the king.
##.Hieun Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim, spent nearly 13 years in India (630–643 CE), collecting sacred texts and relics which he took back to China.
##.He was known as the“ prince of pilgrims” because he visited important pilgrim centres associated with the life of Buddha.
His Si-Yu-Ki provides detailed information about the social, economic, religious and cultural conditions during the reign of Harsha.
##.According to Hieun Tsang, perfect law and order prevailed throughout the empire, as the law-enforcing agencies were strong.
The pilgrim records the principal penalties and judicial ordeals practised in India at that time. Corporal punishment for serious offences was in practise.
##.But the death penalty was usually avoided. Offences against social morality and defiance of law were punished by maiming.
##.Harsha travelled across the kingdom frequently to ensure his familiarity with his people.
##.He was accessible to people and kept a closer watch on his tributary rulers.
Administration of Army
##.Harsha paid great attention to discipline and strength of the army.
##.The army consisted of elephants, cavalry and infantry.
##.Horses were imported. Ordinary soldiers were known as Chatas and Bhatas.
##.Cavalry officers were called Brihadisvaras. Infantry officers were known as Baladhikritas and Mahabaladhikritas.
##.Hieun Tsang mentions the four divisions (chaturanga) of Harsha’s army.
##.He gives details about the strength of each division, its recruitment system and payment for the recruits.
Division of the Empire
##.The empire was divided into several provinces. The actual number of such provinces is not known.
##.Each province was divided into Bhuktis. And each Bhukti was divided into several Vishayas. They were like the districts. Each vishaya was further divided into Pathakas.
##.Each such area was divided into several villages for the sake of administrative convenience. Harsha Charita refers to a number of officials who took care of the local administration.
##.Only their titles are known. What they did isn’t available in Harsha Charita.
##.We learn that bhogapathi, ayuktha, pratpalaka-purusha and the like looked after the local administration.
Cities and Towns
##.Hieun Tsang describes the structure, aesthetics and safety measures of the cities, towns and villages of India.
##.In his view, India was the land of innumerable villages, numerous towns and big cities like China.
##.He pointed out that Pataliputra lost its prominence and its place was taken by Kanauj. The elegance of Kanauj with its lofty structures, beautiful gardens and the museum of rare collections is described.
##.The refined appearance of its residents, their costly dressings and love for learning and art are also pointed out in his account.
##.Most of the towns, according to Hieun Tsang, had outer walls and inner gates.
Though the walls were wide and high, the streets and lanes were narrow.
##.Residential houses had balconies made of wood and coated with lime mortar.
Floors were smeared with cow dung for the purpose of purity and hygiene.
##.Big mansions, public buildings and Buddhist monasteries and viharas were magnificent multi-storeyed structures.
##.They were built of kiln-fired bricks, red sandstone and marble. Harsha constructed a large number of viharas, monasteries and stupas on the bank of the Ganges.
##.Harsha built charitable institutions for the stay of the travellers, and to care for the sick and the poor.
##.Free hospitals and rest houses (dharmasalas) in all the towns were constructed where the travellers or the outsiders could stay.
##.Hospitals were built to provide medical treatment free of charge.
##.Harsha was a worshipper of Siva at least up to 631 CE. But he embraced Buddhism under the influence of his sister Rajyasri and the Buddhist monk Hieun Tsang.
##.He subscribed to the Mahayana school of thought. Yet he held discourses among learned men of various creeds.
##.Slaughter of animals and consumption of meat was restricted.
##.Harsha summoned two Buddhist assemblies (643 CE), one at Kanauj and another at Prayag. The assembly at Kanauj was attended by 20 kings including Bhaskaravarman of Kamarupa. A large number of Buddhist, Jain and Vedic scholars attended the assembly.
##.A golden statue of Buddha was consecrated in a monastery and a small statue of Buddha (three feet) was brought out in a procession.
##.The procession was attended by Harsha and other kings.
Buddhist Assembly at Prayag
##.Harsha convened quinquennial assemblies known as Mahamoksha Parishad at Prayag (at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna).
##.He distributed his wealth among Buddhists, Vedic scholars and the poor people.
##.Harsha offered fabulous gifts to the Buddhist monks on all the four days of the assemblage. Hieun Tsang observed that the principles of Buddhism had deeply permeated the Hindu society.
##.According to him, people were given complete freedom of worship. Social harmony prevailed among the followers of various creeds.
##.Harsha treated the Vedic scholars and the Buddhist bikshus alike and distributed charities equally to them.
##.Caste System Caste system was firmly established in the Hindu society.
##.According to Hieun Tsang, the occupations of the four divisions of society continued to be in practice as in the previous times.
##.People were honest and not deceitful or treacherous in their conduct.
##.The butchers, fishermen, dancers and sweepers were asked to stay outside the city.
##.Even though the caste system was rigid, there was no social conflict among the various sections of the society.
Status of Women
##.Hieun Tsang’s account also provides us information on the position of women and the marriage system of the times.
Women wore purdah.
##.Hieun Tsang, however, added that the purdah system was not followed among the higher class.
##.He pointed out that Rajyasri did not wear purdah when listening to his discourse.
Sati was in practice. Yasomatidevi, wife of Prabhakara Vardhana, immolated herself after the death of her husband.
##.The life pattern of the people of India during the rule of Harsha is known from the accounts of Hieun Tsang.
##.People lived a simple life. They dressed in colourful cotton and silk clothes.
##.The art of wearing fine cloth had reached perfection.
##.Both men and women adorned themselves with gold and silver ornaments.
##.The king wore extraordinary ornaments. Garlands and tiaras of precious stones, rings, bracelets and necklaces were some of the ornaments used by the royalty.
##.The wealthy merchants wore bracelets. women used cosmetics.
##.Hieun Tsang also noted that Indians were mostly vegetarians.
##.The use of onion and garlic in the food preparation was rare.
##.The use of sugar, milk, ghee and rice in the preparation of food or their consumption
##.On certain occasions, fish and mutton were eaten. Beef and meat of certain animals were forbidden.
##.Education was imparted in the monasteries. Learning was religious in character.
##.Much religious literature were produced. The Vedas were taught orally and not written down. Sanskrit was the language of the learned people.
##.An individual took to learning between 9 and 30 years of age.
##.Many individuals devoted their whole life to learning. The wandering bhikshus and sadhus were well known for their wisdom and culture. The people also paid respect to such people of moral and intellectual eminence.
Harsha as a Patron of Art and Literature
##.Harsha patronised literary and cultural activities. It is said the state spent a quarter of its revenue for such activities.
##.Bana, the author of Harshacharita and Kadambari, was a court poet of Harsha.
##.The emperor himself was a renowned litterateur, which is evident from the plays he wrote such as Priyadarsika, Rathnavali and Nagananda.
##.Harsha gifted liberally for the promotion of education.
##.Temples and monasteries functioned as centres of learning.
##.Renowned scholars imparted education in the monasteries at Kanauj, Gaya, Jalandhar, Manipur and other places. The Nalanda University reached its utmost fame during this period.
##.Hieun Tsang recorded the fame of the Nalanda University. Students and scholars from the Buddhist countries like China, Japan, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, Tibet and some other countries of Central and Southeast Asia stayed and studied in the university.
##.Shilabhadra, a reputed Buddhist scholar, who probably hailed from Assam, was the head of the University during the visit of Hieun Tsang.
##.As an educational centre of international fame, Nalanda had 10,000 students on its rolls. Dharmapala, Chandrapala, Shilabhadra, Bhadrihari, Jayasena, Devakara and Matanga were important teachers in the university
receiving royal patronage.
Hiuen Tsang, hailed as the prince of pilgrims, visited India during the reign of Harsha. Born in China in 612 CE he became a Buddhist monk at the age of twenty. During his travels, he visited various sacred places of northern and southern India. Hieun Tsang spent about fi ve years in the University of Nalanda and studied there. Harsha admired him for his deep devotion to Buddha and his profound knowledge of Buddhism. Hieun Tsang carried with him 150 pieces of the relics of Buddha , a large number of Buddha image in gold, silver, sandalwood and above all 657 volumes of valuable manuscripts.